Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is a green, leafy plant that's available in many different varieties. It's rich in nutrients and commonly eaten as food.

Spinach contains high levels of vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin K, magnesium, nitrates, lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-carotene, and folic acid.

People use spinach for obesity, memory and thinking skills, muscle strength, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.
When taken by mouth: Spinach is commonly consumed in foods. It is possibly safe when used in larger amounts as medicine.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Spinach is commonly consumed in foods. There isn't enough reliable information to know if spinach is safe to use in larger amounts as medicine while pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and stick to food amounts.

Children: Eating spinach as a food is likely safe for children who are more than 4 months old. But spinach is likely unsafe for infants younger than 4 months old. The nitrates in spinach can sometimes cause a blood disorder (methemoglobinemia) in young infants.

Allergies: People who are sensitive to latex or certain molds are more likely to have allergic responses to spinach. Also, people who are allergic to foods like chard and beets are more likely to have allergic responses to spinach.

Kidney disorders: Spinach might cause hard crystals to form in the kidneys. These crystals won't dissolve and might make kidney disorders worse.


There is interest in using spinach for a number of purposes, but there isn't enough reliable information to say whether it might be helpful.
Likely effective Effectiveness definitions
Possibly effective Effectiveness definitions
Likely ineffective Effectiveness definitions
Possibly ineffective Effectiveness definitions
Insufficient evidence Effectiveness definitions

Dosing & administration

Spinach is commonly consumed as food. As medicine, there isn't enough reliable information to know what an appropriate dose of spinach might be. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult a healthcare professional before using.

Interactions with pharmaceuticals

Warfarin (Coumadin)

Interaction Rating=Moderate Be cautious with this combination.

Spinach contains large amounts of vitamin K. Vitamin K is used by the body to help blood clot. Warfarin is used to slow blood clotting. By helping the blood clot, spinach might decrease the effects of warfarin. Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. The dose of your warfarin might need to be changed.

Interactions with herbs & supplements

Calcium: Spinach might decrease the amount of calcium the body absorbs from the intestines.
Iron: Spinach might decrease the amount of iron the body absorbs from the intestines.
Zinc: Spinach might decrease the amount of zinc the body absorbs from the intestines.

Interactions with foods

Spinach might decrease the amount of calcium, iron, and/or zinc that the body absorbs from foods. But this isn't likely to be a big concern for people who have a well-balanced diet.
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This monograph was last reviewed on 22/02/2023 11:00:00 and last updated on 26/12/2021 09:09:38. Monographs are reviewed and/or updated multiple times per month and at least once per year.
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