Apple
Apple

Background

Apple is the fruit from the apple tree (Malus domestica). Apples are very commonly eaten as food. They also contain chemicals which are used as medicine.

Apples contain pectin, which helps bulk up the stool to treat diarrhea and constipation. Apples also contain chemicals with anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. Apple peel contains a chemical called ursolic acid, which may play a role in building muscle and metabolism.

People use apples for Alzheimer disease, cancer, diabetes, diarrhea, obesity, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.

Don't confuse apples with apple cider vinegar, apple polyphenols, or pectin. These are not the same.
When taken by mouth: Apples are commonly consumed as food. Eating apples and drinking apple juice is considered safe. But eating apple seeds should be avoided. The seeds contain cyanide and are poisonous.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Apples and apple juice are commonly consumed in the diet. But there isn't enough reliable information to know if apple is safe to use as medicine when pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and stick to food amounts.

Children: Apples and apple juice are commonly consumed in the diet. Apples are likely safe for children as long as the seeds are avoided. Apple pectin is possibly safe for children when taken by mouth, short-term.

Allergy to plants in the Rosaceae family: People who are allergic to other fruits in the Rosaceae family, including apricots, almonds, plums, peaches, pears, and strawberries, might also be allergic to apple. Apple might also cause an allergic reaction in people allergic to birch pollen. If you have allergies, be sure to check with your healthcare provider before taking apple.

Diabetes: Apple, especially apple juice, can increase blood sugar levels. Monitor your blood sugar carefully if you use apple products and have diabetes.

Effectiveness

There is interest in using apple for a number of purposes, but there isn't enough reliable information to say whether it might be helpful.
Likely effective Effectiveness definitions
Possibly effective Effectiveness definitions
Likely ineffective Effectiveness definitions
Possibly ineffective Effectiveness definitions
Insufficient evidence Effectiveness definitions

Dosing & administration

Apples and apple juice are commonly consumed in the diet. As medicine, there isn't enough reliable information to know what an appropriate dose of apple might be. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult a healthcare professional before using.

Interactions with pharmaceuticals

Aliskiren (Tekturna, Rasilez)

Interaction Rating=Moderate Be cautious with this combination.

Apple juice can decrease how much aliskiren the body absorbs. Drinking apple juice along with aliskiren might decrease the effects of aliskiren. To avoid this interaction, separate taking aliskiren from consuming apple juice by at least 4 hours.

Atenolol (Tenormin)

Interaction Rating=Moderate Be cautious with this combination.

Apple juice can decrease how much atenolol the body absorbs. Drinking apple juice along with atenolol might decrease the effects of atenolol. To avoid this interaction, separate taking atenolol from consuming apple juice by at least 4 hours.

Fexofenadine (Allegra)

Interaction Rating=Moderate Be cautious with this combination.

Apple juice can decrease how much fexofenadine the body absorbs. Drinking apple juice along with fexofenadine might decrease the effects of fexofenadine. To avoid this interaction, separate taking fexofenadine from consuming apple juice by at least 4 hours.

Lithium

Interaction Rating=Moderate Be cautious with this combination.

Apple juice might decrease how much lithium the body absorbs. Drinking apple juice along with lithium might decrease the effects of lithium.

Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)

Interaction Rating=Moderate Be cautious with this combination.

Consuming apples and drinking apple juice might increase blood sugar levels. Consuming apples and drinking apple juice along with diabetes medications might reduce the effects of these medications. Monitor your blood sugar closely.

Medications for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs)

Interaction Rating=Moderate Be cautious with this combination.

Consuming apple juice might increase blood pressure. Consuming apple juice might reduce the effects of blood pressure medications. Monitor your blood pressure closely.

Medications moved by pumps in cells (Organic Anion-Transporting Polypeptide Substrates)

Interaction Rating=Major Do not take this combination.

Some medications are moved in and out of cells by pumps. Apple might change how these pumps work and change how much medication stays in the body. In some cases, this might change the effects and side effects of a medication.

Interactions with herbs & supplements

Calcium: Eating apples or applesauce might increase levels of calcium in the body. Consuming apple products with calcium supplements might increase calcium levels too much.
Iron: Drinking apple juice might increase iron levels in the blood. But it's not clear if this is a major concern.

Interactions with foods

There are no known interactions with foods.
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This monograph was last reviewed on 18/09/2023 10:00:00 and last updated on 18/04/2018 20:46:39. Monographs are reviewed and/or updated multiple times per month and at least once per year.
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