Rhamnus purshiana - Cascara sagrada (sacred bark), Californian buckthorn
Rhamnus purshiana

Indications & contra-indications

Actions:
  • Antiparasitic
  • Laxative
  • Purgative
Indications:
  • Constipation
Nutrient reference value:
No observed adverse effect level (NOAEL):
Suggested optimal nutritional allowance:
Dietary reference intake:
BHP indications: Occasional constipation, conditions in which soft stool is desirable (anal fissure, haemorrhoids).
Commission E indications: Constipation
Contraindications: Intestinal obstruction and stenosis, atony, inflammatory diseases of the colon (ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, Crohn disease), appendicitis, abdominal pain of unknown origin, severe dehydration states with water and electrolyte depletion, or chronic constipation. Contraindicated in patients with cramps, colic, haemorrhoids and nephritis. Do not administer during pregnancy or to children less than 10 years.
Cautions: For short term use only (1-2 weeks); use only if no effect can be obtained through a change of diet or by the use of bulk-forming laxatives. Do not administer during lactation without professional advice. Single doses may result in cramp-like discomfort of the gastrointestinal tract. May cause griping colic, diarrhoea, potassium and fluid loss, and possible hepatic reactions.

Dosage

Dosage (dry herb): 1.5-3 g per day
Dosage (liquid extract): 20-40 mL per week (1:2)
Dosage (powdered extract):
Qualities: Cool, pungent.

More info & references

More information:
WHO: Short-term treatment of occasional constipation.
References:

American Botanical Council, Expanded Commission E Monographs, Eds: Blumenthal, M, Goldberg, A & Brinckmann, J, American Botanical Council; Integrative Medicine Communications, 2000. American Botanical Council, The Complete German Commission E Monographs ÔÇô Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines, Eds: Blumenthal, M, Busse, WR, Goldberg, A, Gruenwald, J, Hall, T, Riggins, CW and Rister, RS, American Botanical Council; Integrative Medicine Communications, 1998. Bensky, D & Gamble, A, Chinese Herbal Medicine Materia Medica, Eastland Press, Seattle, 1986. Bone, K M, Clinical Application of Ayurvedic and Chinese Herbs, Monographs for the Western Herbal Practitioner, Phytotherapy Press, Brisbane, 1996. Braun, L & Cohen, M, Herbs & Natural Supplements ÔÇô An evidence-based guide, 2nd Ed. Churchill Livingstone, Elsevier, Australia, 2008. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Compendium, A handbook of scientific information on widely used plant drugs, Volume 1, BHMA, Dorset, 1992. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopoeia, Cowling, BHMA, 1983. Culpeper, N, Culpeper's Complete Herbal, W Foulsham & Co, New York. European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), ESCOP Monographs. The scientific foundation for herbal medicinal products, 2nd Ed. ESCOP, Georg Thieme Verlag, 2003. Fisher, C & Painter, G, Materia Medica of Western Herbs for the Southern Hemisphere, 1996, ISBN: 0-473-03982-6. Holmes, P, The Energetics of Western Herbs, Artemis Press, Boulder Colorado, 1989. Leung, AY & Forster, S, Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics, 2nd Ed. John Wiley, New York Chichester, 1996. Mills, SY, The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. A comprehensive guide to practical herbal therapy, Healing Arts Press, Rochester Vermont, 1988. Mills, SY, The Essential Book of Herbal Medicine, Penguin Arkana, Harmondsworth, Middlesex, 1993. (First published under the title Out of the Earth by Viking Arkana, 1991.) Mills, S & Bone, K, The Essential Guide to Herbal Safety, Elsevier Ltd, Churchill Livingstone, 2005. Pole, S, Ayurvedic Medicine: The principles of traditional practice, Churchill Livingstone, Elsevier Ltd, 2006. Stedman's Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing, 5th Ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005. Trickey, R, Women, Hormones and the Menstrual Cycle, Allen & Unwin, Sydney, 1998. Ulbricht, C.E. and Basch, E.M. Natural Standard Herb & Supplement Reference. Evidence-based clinical reviews, St Louis, Elsevier Mosby, 2005. Van Wyk, BE and Wink, M, Medicinal Plants of the World, Briza Publications. South Africa, 2004. Wichtl, M (Ed.) Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. A handbook for practice on a scientific basis, 3rd Ed.: Medpharm Scientific Publishers, Stuttgart, CRC Press, Boca, Raton, London, New York, Washington DC, 2004. World Health Organisation, WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Volume 1, WHO Press, 1999. World Health Organisation, WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Volume 2, WHO Press, 1999. World Health Organisation, WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Volume 3, WHO Press, 2007.